Identifying Bullying in Infancy

We don’t typically think about the development of bullying before children start school. However, research published in 2018 shows us that even in infancy we can begin to distinguish between leaders and bullies.

In the study, the infants saw 3 people interact with someone who was either a leader (with respect-based power) or a bully (with fear-based power). The leader/bully character gave an order to the person, who obeyed, then the leader/bully character left the scene and the person either continued to obey or stopped.

The outcome was that the infants expected the person to continue to obey the leader’s order after she left the scene, but they expected the protagonists to obey the bully’s order only when she remained present. The study concludes that by 21 months, infants can already distinguish between respect-based and fear-based power relations.

Preventing Bullying by Focusing on Early Childhood

In 2015, Child Trends (a leading research organization) and National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) documented the current understandings of the roots of bullying in early childhood and found 4 key factors linked to bullying behaviors (as per photo) as well as promising and evidence-based programs that help address emerging behavior.

Source :

https://www.infantmassageusa.org/

識別嬰兒期中的欺淩行為

我們通常不會在孩子開始上學之前考慮欺淩行為的發展。然而,2018年發表的研究表明,即使在嬰兒期,我們也可以開始區分領導者和欺負者。 在這項研究中,嬰兒看到3個人與一個領導者 (基於尊重的權力) 或欺負者 (基於恐懼的權力) 的人互動。領導者/欺負者給那些人下命令,然後領導者/欺負角色離開現場,該人要麼繼續服從,要麼停止。 結果是,嬰兒期望對方在離開現場後繼續服從領導者的命令,但他們希望該人只有在留在場時才服從欺負者的命令。

研究的結論是,21個月大的嬰兒已經可以區分基於尊重和恐懼的權力關係。2015年,Child Trends (一個領先的研究機構) 和全國幼兒教育協會( NAEYC) 記錄了目前對幼兒期欺淩根源的理,並發現了與欺凌行為相關的4個關鍵因素,以及幫助解決過於進取態度的方法。

與欺凌行為相關的關鍵因素

1. 父母對彼此,其子女和其他孩子的態度影響幼兒對待同齡人的方式。 2. 遭受虐待的年幼兒童更有可能參與欺淩,既作為目標,也成為施暴者。 3. 電視和其他媒體可促進侵略和親社會技能的發展。 4. 培養幼兒的社交和表達情感技能,令教室成為一個開心分享的地方,可以大大減少侵略行為。

解決侵略性行為的方法

1. 注重表達同理心和關心他人的育兒策略可能有助於阻止後來的欺淩行為。 2. 旨在減少虐待兒童的早期干預方案以及正面的育兒計劃。 3. 增加專為推廣分享、同理心和其他親社會技能而設計的活動。 4. 幫助兒童理解和控制自己的情緒及瞭解他人的感受,可以大大減少衝突和侵略性行為。

資料來源 : https://www.infantmassageusa.org/